Translating Weisheng in Treaty-Port China 5. To do so, they adopted, adapted, and cultivated particular ways of building a modern nation in the final years of the Qing dynasty, which hung, importantly, on practices of hygiene. From 1860 to 1945, Tianjin was home to as many as eight different foreign concessions, the most of any Chinese treaty port. This involved measures such as quarantining and surveying citizens, changing their most intimate rituals such as the way they buried their dead, as well as altering urban structures by laying underground pipes, drainage ditches -- even tearing down Tianjin's city walls. The Country of Memory: Remaking the Past in Late Socialist Vietnam, by Hue-Tam Ho Tai 4.
Over the course of the twentieth century the state, scientists, physicians, and the military all came to participate in the health management of aggregated populations, and eventually in the fitness of the race and nation. I profited immensely from teaching and talking with my colleagues in Japanese history, Sheldon Garon and David Howell. Following Jürgen Osterhammel, Goodman calls for a scholarship on semicolonialism that avoids the extremes of mutual benefit and total domination by mapping when, where, how, and to what effect did which extraneous forces impinge on Chinese life. Germ Warfare and Patriotic Weisheng Conclusion Glossary Notes Bibliography Index. In the twentieth century, meanings of weisheng changed to encompass modern biomedicine, public health, and personal decorum.
By narrating the changing concepts of health within the specific setting of Tianjin, this study attempts to pinpoint when, where, how, and to what effect foreign forces impinged on Chinese life. It was the job of the government to prevent diseases of the national body through sanitary policing, public works, and state-sponsored medical institutions. This study does, however, strive to place the global within the local. The publisher gratefully acknowledges the generous contribution to this book provided by the Philip E. Fujian ribao Fujian daily , 30 March 1952. For most of the period of this study, Japan served as a model of a successful Asian modernity that could serve as a bridge to modernity for China. We have been selling books online for over ten years and we have learned how to save students from the inflated costs of textbooks especially when the updated editions do not contain substantial changes and typically are nearly identical in every way.
Mapping Early Modern Japan: Space, Place, and Culture in the Tokugawa Period, 1603—1868, by Marcia Yonemoto 8. ²² Mark Harrison has suggested that a rise in a European mentality that thought of many Indians as inherently diseased and deficient accompanied the erosion of an optimism about acclimatization and the colonization of India after 1800. It does so by focusing on the multiple manifestations across time of a single Chinese word: weisheng. This study explores how health and hygiene became an important strategy in these imperial representations. Placing meanings of health and disease at the center of modern Chinese consciousness, Ruth Rogaski reveals how hygiene became a crucial element in the formulation of Chinese modernity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Hippocratic treatises such as Regimen in Health fifth century B. If you are able to reduce all the Flavors then you will be healthy If the Flavors tend to excess, then it is difficult to not have illness. Over the course of the twentieth century the state, scientists, physicians, and the military all came to participate in the health management of aggregated populations, and eventually in the fitness of the race and nation. From the perspective of many Tianjin elites, Japan was a force that could bring order, rationality, and health to a subaltern society that had become unmanageable. About the Author List of Illustrations Acknowledgments Prologue: Sun the Perfected Oneand 8217;s Song of Guarding Life Introduction 1.
If the Fire does not appear, then the Spirit is naturally calm. The second-century Roman physician Galen advised moderation in exercise, diet, and drink in his treatise De sanitate tuenda Hygiene. Foreign violence may have opened the treaty ports, but this violence is a vague memory that does not affect the everyday interactions between foreigners and Chinese in Shanghai. Over the course of the twentieth century the state, scientists, physicians, and the military all came to participate in the health management of aggregated populations, and eventually in the fitness of the race and nation. Finally translations of texts helped produce new meanings of health and hygiene not by bringing together two monolithic cultures or transferring an absolute science from one language to another but by negotiating meanings between two languages at highly specific moments in the histories of local sciences and local societies. Xu in the spring will make your eyes bright, in the summer ah your Heart, In the autumn, pi, in the winter cui, and your Lung and Kidney will be tranquil, Hu throughout the four seasons so your Spleen will transform food, Xi your Triple Burner and its heat will be impossible to stop.
Seen and Unseen: The Urban Landscape and Boundaries of Weisheng 8. Reed Malcolm and Suzanne Knott took over to shepherd the manuscript through production with tremendous skill. The meanings of this hygiene go far beyond anything ever associated with the word before the late nineteenth century. If the history of hygienic modernity is essentially the story of the adoption by Chinese elites of a technology of imperialism, that adoption was facilitated by the presence of Japan. In the writings about weisheng by Chinese elites in the twentieth century there was an explicit understanding that Chinese were not as clean, not as organized, not as disciplined, and not as healthy as an imagined West. Lilienthal imprint honors special books in commemoration of a man whose work at the University of California Press from 1954 to 1979 was marked by dedication to young authors and to high standards in the field of Asian Studies.
This study seeks to understand the process through which these novel meanings became associated with the term weisheng. Here the focus has been on the development of Western discourses that turned indigenous peoples into diseased and chaotic medical objects, and the coercive techniques used to act upon native bodies as objects. Pacify your heart, accumulate good works, Cherish life, cherish the body, cherish Qi, And learn by heart this Song of Guarding Life. Hygienic Modernity reveals how meanings of weisheng, with the arrival of violent imperialism, shifted from Chinese cosmology to encompass such ideas as national sovereignty, laboratory knowledge, the cleanliness of bodies, and the fitness of races: categories in which the Chinese were often deemed lacking by foreign observers and Chinese elites alike. By suggesting that Tianjin could be described as a hypercolony, I am not seeking to generate a new theoretical model: I am simply drawing attention to the potential implications that arise when one urban space is divided among multiple imperialisms. A plan for the costly construction of a local sewer system became the greatest political debate of the 1970s in my home town. Indeed, it is one of the finest books we now have on modernity in East Asia.
In Ars medica Art of medicine , Galen identified the six categories of air, food and drink, sleep and waking, movement and rest, retention and evacuations, and the passions of the soul as the major external factors that influenced health, elements that later became the cornerstones of hygiene known as the six nonnaturals. Hygienic Modernity breaks new intellectual ground in our understanding of imperialism, providing local texture and transnational reach. This occupying force also determined the conditions under which the indigenous government could regain its sovereignty over Tianjin, and thus radically shaped the native government of the city after reversion. Within this narrative, I remain sensitive to how elites imbued these changes with a significance that went well beyond their quotidian effects. The bathrooms in private homes and toilets in public spaces are referred to as weisheng rooms weisheng jian.
A focus on Tianjin helps to shed light on this complex process by foregrounding the crucial mediating role played by Japan. Their feedback has been greatly appreciated. Arnold highlights the corporal aspects of British colonialism as British administrators counted, quarantined, vaccinated, and inspected Indian bodies. We even guarantee this by offering a 30-day full refund if you are unable to use the book for any reason. Transforming Eisei in Meiji Japan 6. The Daoist master warned the Mongol to moderate his diet, to act according to the seasons, and to limit his sexual activities. Both concluding sections seem relatively scant in comparison to her discussion in the rest of her book, particularly that of Japanese Occupation-era Tianjin.