The performance of public enterprises: concepts and measurement. Our conclusion in Section 6 emphasizes the specific merits of the cooperative game theoretic approach in the framework of international environmental agreements. Cheung noted that intervention by government was not necessary to address the problem because beekeepers and apple growers came to their own solution. The core, on the other hand, may be empty; when it is not, it may consist of more than one imputation. Ferreira, Mário Raposo, Roel Rutten, Attila Varga eds.
This paper develops a nonlinear input-output model in which the production functions can exhibit a mixture of returns to scale at the various stages of production. We show that time-neutrality is sufficient, but not necessary, for all three properties. We then re-evaluate the performance of branch offices on the basis of a reduced set of influential targets. Farsighted coalitional stability, Journal of Economic Theory, 63, 299—325. Economic decision making: games, econometrics and optimisation.
Copyright © 2006 Published by Elsevier B. Two changes proved to be sufficient for that purpose: i change the assumption on the supply side; ii introduce the possibility of lump sum transfers of the private good between the consumers. In the concluding section economic interpretations of the scheme are proposed, including its connection with the free riding problem. In their Negishi solution, what they call exports are in fact some kind of restricted normative transfers among the regions whose justification is not clear. Then, we extend this exercise to an appraisal of the situation of the world climate regime that is currently prevailing, after the Protocol has entered into force.
This issue has been dealt with in several previous works: thus, Kaitala, Pohjola and Tahvonen 1992a presented a first basic analysis of the acid rain game between Finland and neighboring areas; these authors then extended their analysis to deal with two countries with several different regions 1991. The difference lies in the fact that Nordhaus and Yang 1996 allow for cross effects between emission abatement costs and climate change damages: this type of cross effects are excluded by our formulation. In recent years, she has published 5 monographs and several influential papers in industrial economics and industrial development. Here, I adopt the definition proposed by Milleron 1972, Section 1 , which allows to clearly delineate public goods not only from private goods, but also from other forms of externalities. The operational feature calls for developing the theory to the point where the gist of the problem is brought to light. Second, why do individuals or organizations take the lead in providing or securing provision of public goods? This approach is one of closed-loop or feedback dynamic games.
In Section 4 we observe that our exchange process is replicable. This is fairly common practice in the game theoretic literature on market games, and is rationalized as describing situations where agents are allowed to borrow from one another. The mere definition of an optimum does not imply that such a situation is likely to occur. This will restore a win-win situation — a positive sum game — among the communities where they would no longer be competitors, but partners with an interest in seeing the other language flourish. Thus, for s large enough, x s must be a competitive allocation.
Being forced to aggregate, we settled for the six output categories listed in Table 1 below. We are satisfied that many readers will appreciate the availability of this diversified set of papers in a single volume. Dolan The Presidency and Economic Policy John Frendreis is Professor of Political Science at Loyola University Chicago. A limit theorem on the core of an economy, International Economic Review, 4 3 , 235—246. In either case, the quest for efficiency is claimed to be at the root of cooperation. For example, provisions allowing for market power to be exerted by some traders so as to influence price formation to their advantage, as well as regulatory controls that would impede sufficient price flexibility; or, as proposed by some, the capping of the quantities that participants are allowed to trade on. Beyond, we show that worldwide coalitionally stable optimality is a real possibility with quotas and trading, subject to future agreement on appropriate reference emission levels, especially for developing countries.
The decline coincides with a period of rapidly increasing global demand for, and price of, coal, which has made it economically feasible to mine coal that was previously uneconomic. As a motivating example, we formulate the problem of global warming as a dynamic game with simultaneous moves and show that if the payoff functions are quadratic, then the gamma-core of the game is nonempty. The authors show that such an equilibrium exists and is unique under assumptions similar to those of our economic model. In Tulkens 1979 functions that allow for the spatial distribution of discharge and ambient pollutants in sea waters are considered, prompted by a model pertaining to the North Sea. In 2002, the World Health Organization published a health system performance ranking for 191 member countries. We develop a weaker version of time-neutrality that is necessary and sufficient for all three properties to hold.
Typically, the problem is posed in terms of technical efficiency: which property-cum-management structure is conducive to the least waste? A note on externalities and the core, Econometrica, 41 1 , 179—183. But as may be seen from the early debates over the feasibility of central planning in socialist economies, there are other important characteristics of mechanisms that also need to be taken into account. Linear programming techniques are frequently employed to calculate the efficiency measures. Stability theorems with economic applications, Econometrica, 45, 273—294. For this function we assume that Ci0 Ei 0. Empirical results show declining levels of output technical efficiency along with a significantly high rate of technical progress.
For any x 2 X , the gradient vector at x of the objective function W x , namely Wih ¼ li uih , determines the direction i. In this study we develop an analytical framework that links all four phenomena. We use data envelopment analysis to calculate radial technical efficiency scores. A complete study should of course take into account this variety of situations. The empirical techniques utilized by the contributors include econometrics, mathematical programming, and index numbers. Although the computational procedure solves a linear programming problem, it has nothing to do with standard linear programming algorithms.
We show that collective action by green consumers reduces competition and leads to higher prices for the good of both qualities. With theses functions, notice that the marginal rates of substitution pij xi are identical to the marginal utilities ui xi , and are independent of xi1. We also examine output technical efficiency, which is defined in terms of the production possibility frontier. In the aggregate however, the sum of all payments and receipts made by the agency can be shown to break even see proposition 1 b in Section 3. The paper also demonstrates the possibility of a first-best international treaty on global pollution in which each country or group of countries is better-off. Codippily, World Bank Pacific Island economies: building a resilient economic base for the twenty-first century World Bank Publications 1996 0821335545, 9780821335543 Economic Development Institute Washington, D.