The results have implications for the role literature could play in society, for instance, in an alternative for traditional moral education. This book examines what we actually know about these effects. How are particular forms of being absorbed related to feeling entertained, or enraptured, or inspired by its beauty? In our multi-factor model of literary reading, an important addition to the previously mentioned theories is the concept »stillness«. Their separate endeavors have resulted in a terminology that is bewilderingly diverse. Frank Hakemulder has a background in literary theory and comparative literature. Previous research showed an emerging appreciation of literary narratives on second reading, whereas such effects fail to occur for the same narratives depleted of literary features. This article presents an overview of empirical studies investigating the relationship between reading and empathy, and reading and self-reflection.
The experience of deviation is often referred to as foregrounding and contrasted with the experience of feeling absorbed in a narrative. For funding reasons, priority is given to Basel and Swiss participants, though we might be able to feewaive other participants as well. We borrow this term from the Canadian author Yann Martel 2009 , who suggests reading certain literary texts will help to stimulate self-contemplation and appreciation for art , moments that are especially valuable in times that life seems to be racing by, and we are enveloped by work and a multitude of other activities. Our multi-factor model suggests that while role-taking can take place for all types of narratives, literary and fictional narratives may evoke the type of aesthetic distance stillness that leads to a suspension of judgment, adding to a stronger experience of role-taking and narrative empathy. While the role-taking concept seems most adequate to explain empathic responses, the defamiliarization concept seems most adequate in explaining reflective responses. Painter, Bernadette Prochaska, Sitansu Ray, Valerie Reed, Victor Gerald Rivas, Kristine S. Fictionality might stimulate readers to consider the narrative they read as a thought experiment, creating distance between them and the events, allowing them to experiment more freely with taking the position of a character different from themselves, also in moral respects.
This site is like a library, you could find million book here by using search box in the widget. A series of experiments examines whether imagining oneself in the shoes of characters affects beliefs about what it must be like to be someone else, and whether it affects beliefs about consequences of behavior. It was found that the former increased perceived personal author involvement, while the latter made the author seem more convincing. The idea that reading literature changes the reader seems as old as literature itself. The available research, however, does not inform us about what causes these effects, relevant knowledge for a variety of social contexts, including literary education and social competence trainings e. We reveal those questions in the research that are not addressed as of yet, and synthesize the available approaches to literary effects. We argue that the solution of this paradox requires dropping the notion of an undivided consciousness, and replacing it with one of consciousness as coming in degrees.
Through the ages philosophers, writers, and literary scholars have suggested it affects norms, empathic ability, self-concept, beliefs, etc. There must be more to reading than just text comprehension — stories are to entertain, Brewer and Lichtenstein 1984 famously proclaimed. And yet it is highly unlikely that they completely ignore the fact that they watch a narrative and technological construction. Based on theory as well as empirical work, a multi-factor model of literary reading is constructed. I will present the results of the research projects that I am running in the Netherlands, focusing on the role of literature in enhancing self-knowledge and social perception. It thus contributes to general creativity and development in societies.
And it finds strong evidence for the old claims. To do this we should extend our knowledge about what distinguishes the processing of literary stories from that of narratives in other genres and media. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. Claudia Breger and Fritz Breithaupt. But is it indeed the case that a seemingly idle pass-time activity like literary reading can do all that? Please note that it may not be complete. Often the assumed effects of literature on readers or listeners seem rather crucial; for instance: learning about the lives of others, gaining insights into the human condition and who we are. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
The discussion of these two theoretical explanations leads to the construction of a theoretical framework and model that offers useful suggestions which texts could be considered to have which effects on empathy and reflection. A team of had participants read an excerpt from Saffron Dreams, a novel by Shalia Abdullah about a non-stereotypical Muslim woman living in New York City. Do the moral duties of a mother to care for and not abuse her child also apply to her fetus? Would the effects be particular to unique literary text qualities or to other aspects that literary texts share with other genres e. What literature is, how it works, and why it exists at all are some of the fascinating questions that the theory of foregrounding tries to answer. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that the combination of experiencing narrative and aesthetic emotions tends to trigger self-reflection. In this way, the opportunity to and share their inner life—even a fictional life—enhances our understanding of their world.
Any errors therein should be reported to them. Please click button to get the moral laboratory book now. It may also be that the increase in appreciation is caused by a general sense of increased comprehension, a more common effect that may also occur on rereading nonliterary narratives. In this way, literature sustains or creates individual self-awareness of automatized actions and preconceptions. The project also offers essential contributions to the accumulating insights of social scientists concerning the role of absorption in narrative effects.
Experiments Examining the Effects of Reading Literature on Social Perception and Moral Self-Concept, Amsterdam 2000. The term 'foregrounding' refers to specific linguistic devices, i. Reader: Essays in Reader-Oriented Theory, Criticism, and Pedagogy 14 1985 , 23—39. However, it remains unclear what aspects of the reading experience are responsible for these effects. These results suggest that critical thinking can be engaged in the literature classroom.